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Ear, nose and throat diseases in children

Ear, nose and throat diseases in children


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Ear - Nose - Throat diseases, mainly nasal congestion, nasal flesh, frequent tonsillitis, sinusitis, allergy, hearing loss, inflammation of the middle ear, foreign bodies, nasal bleeding occurs. In fact, especially the diseases seen in children are related to each other directly or indirectly.

1-) Septal deviation
There is curvature in the septum. It is usually congenital or due to birth trauma. In these children, as much as possible, the nose is kept open and clean with saline solutions. Since the development of bone and cartilage continues until the age of 18, a surgical intervention should not be preferred since it will disrupt the growth points.

2-) Adenoid vegetation
In the part where the nostrils are opened to the nasal passage, there is meat that we call adenoid tissue that may be present in every child. This must be of a certain size to cause complaints. Large nasal flesh causes nasal congestion, snoring, mouth-open sleep. Eustachian tube is the part that connects the middle ear to the nasal cavity and regulates the pressure of the middle ear. In the presence of sea meat, this pipe becomes clogged and thus causes fluid to accumulate in the middle ear. How many kinds of plastic tubes are attached. Thus, the middle ear is vented by this tube.

3-) Chronic tonsillitis (Frequent tonsillitis)
Chronic tonsillitis is mentioned when inflammation of the tonsils occurs 7-8 times in one year, 5 times in two years or three times in three years. As it is known, tonsils are used as protective at the mouth entrance. In addition to the tonsils seen, there are two protective tissues called the lingual tonsils and one adenoid tissue in the nasal cavity towards the root of the tongue and a total of 5 protective tonsils. These five tissues are found at the entrance of the throat like a ring and are called the ey Waldeyer ”ring. In this aspect, the issue of unprotected stay in tonsil operations is wrong because only two rotten and non-functioning rings of this ring are taken out and the remaining rings continue their duties. Sometimes the tonsils can be taken in because they are too large and prevent the entry of the throat, thus breathing and swallowing.

4-) Sinusitis
It is understood as inflammation of the sinuses. The child has a runny nose, nasal congestion, sometimes headache and increased dry cough at night. The most prominent causes of sinusitis is nasal congestion. Antibiotics, antihistamines, decongestants are usually used in the treatment of sinusitis. Nose cleaning is very important. It is necessary to teach the child how to blow. Treatment of frequent recurrent sinusitis should eliminate by treating causes such as nasal congestion, allergies, frequent flu.

5-) Allergy
Every human being is a body reaction that can be manifested in any period of life, depending on more than one reason, in which genetics plays a role. In today's world where technology and chemical wastes are traveling, the rate of allergy increases every day as a result of environmental pollution, pollution of the air we breathe and thus our contact with them. In the face of this situation, there are options such as cortisone medications (sprays, needles, tablets), antihistamines, vaccines.

6-) Hearing impairment
It occurs due to a congenital or transmitted disease. Children may have hearing loss for many reasons. For example, ear plugs (earwax), inflammation of the middle ear (bacterial or serous fluid accumulation), severe bacterial or viral diseases (eg meningitis), birth due to genetic factors, perforation of the eardrum, use of ototoxic drugs (drugs with harmful effects to the ear) factors.

7-) Otitis (inflammation of the middle ear)
It is one of the most common diseases in children and diagnosis and treatment is very important. It occurs when nasal obstruction or nasal inflammation of the nasal flesh, or infections such as sinusitis, influenza, or bacteria or viruses reach the middle ear through the eustachian tube. Since the eustachian tube is short and wide in children, the middle ear is more open and sensitive than the adults. If there is no response to antibiotic treatment in serous otitis, it is important to insert a tube into the membrane and to select effective antibiotics in acute otitis media. Sometimes the amount of water accumulated in the tympanum pushes the membrane, leading to severe ear inflammation, in which case paracentesis and membrane drainage are required.

😎 Foreign bodies
Nasal obstruction is another cause. Children insert beads, rosaries, erasers, rubber pieces and plastic parts of toys into the nose. The foreign body inside causes discharge from the nose and rhinitis. The difference between sinusitis and allergic rhinitis is that the runny nose is unilateral and smelly. The treatment involves removing the body and adding antibiotic treatment if necessary.

9-) Nose bleeding
It is a common discomfort. The majority of nosebleeds are caused by bleeding of capillaries. Infections affecting the nose, such as sinusitis and allergic rhinitis, may initiate nosebleeds. Sometimes there is a lack of clotting factors and nosebleeds in congenital diseases. The purpose of nosebleeds is to reveal and treat the cause of bleeding. When there is a nosebleed, the child sits down with two fingers and pressurize both nose wings and then clean the nose and clots with cold water, then the nose wings are pressed and the ENT doctor is consulted.

Op.Dr.NASER DADAŞZADE

Acıbadem Hospital Ear - Nose - Throat Diseases Specialist


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